Wednesday, 13 February 2019

All types Of Insurance In UK

All types Of Insurance In UK

New York’s health insurance marketplace
The health of New York’s state-based exchange, NY State of Health remains strong heading into 2019. The exchange has robust insurer participation, and premiums are still lower for 2019 than they were in 2013. (That’s not the case in most states, but New York had guaranteed-issue coverage long before the ACA, but without a mandate requiring people to buy coverage and without premium subsidies for middle-class enrollees. As a result, coverage was expensive in New York pre-2014.)


Enrollment in NY State of Health – including QHPs (private plans), the Essential Plan, Medicaid, and Child Health Plus – reached more than 4.3 million by the end of January 2018 (when open enrollment ended for QHPs). That was an increase of 700,000 over the prior year’s total enrollment.
New York is a progressive state that embraced health care reform decades ahead of most of the rest of the country. The Affordable Care Act has smoothed out some rough edges in the New York insurance market, and since implementing Obamacare, the state has continued upon these improvements. In January 2017, prior to the inauguration of Donald Trump, New York Governor, Andrew Cuomo, announced that repealing the ACA would cause 2.7 million New Yorkers to lose their health insurance coverage.

Although Republican leaders spent 2017 attempting to repeal the ACA, most of their efforts fell short. All of the ACA repeal bills that were considered in 2017 failed to win enough support to pass, although the GOP tax bill, enacted in December 2017, did repeal the individual mandate penalty, starting in 2019 (there is still a penalty for being uninsured in 2018, which will be assessed on tax returns in early 2019, but there will not be a federal penalty for being uninsured starting in 2019).

A few states have implemented their own individual mandates for 2019 and beyond, although New York is not one of them. But Governor Cuomo took action in early 2017 to protect New York residents’ access to birth control and abortion coverage, regardless of the future of the ACA. The Governor also worked to ensure continued robust insurer participation in the individual market, and ongoing access to essential health benefits. Lawmakers once again considered a single-payer system during the 2018 legislative session — it passed the Assembly, but fell short in the Senate, just as it did in 2017.

Compare plans and rates in your ZIP code
2019 exchange carriers
New York has a very robust individual health insurance market, with 12 carriers offering plans in the exchange, and two that offer plans only outside the exchange. All of them will continue to offer coverage for 2019, with average rate increases (before subsidies are applied) of 8.6 percent. (Details about approved average rate changes for each plan are available here). The following insurers offer individual-market plans in New York’s exchange:

Capital District Physicians Health Plan
Empire BlueCross and Empire Blue Cross Blue Shield
Excellus (Excellus Blue Cross Blue Shield in Central New York and Univera in Western New York)
Fidelis Care
Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York (EmblemHealth)
Healthfirst New York
HealthNow New York, Inc. (BlueShield of Northeastern New York, and BlueCross BlueShield of Western New York)
Independent Health
MetroPlus Health Plan
MVP Health Plan, Inc.
Oscar Insurance Corporation
United Healthcare of New York, Inc
Two insurers – Crystal Run Health Plan and HealthFirst Insurance Company – will continue to offer off-exchange plans in 2019.

In the small-group market – where more than a million New Yorkers get their health coverage – employers with up to 100 employees can purchase ACA-compliant plans. With the exception of Fidelis, all of the individual-market carriers offer small-group plans, in addition to Aetna Life, Oxford, and some additional divisions of a few of the companies that offer individual market plans.

Fifteen New York health carriers offer plans under the state’s Basic Health Program. Also known as the “Essential Plan,” this coverage is for people with incomes up to 200 percent of the federal poverty level and does not include a deductible or premium. New York and Minnesota are the only states that have established BHPs.

New York State of Health enrollment tops 4.3 million
Open enrollment for 2019 coverage will run from November 1, 2018 to January 31, 2019 for qualified health plans. (Enrollment in Medicaid, Child Health Plus, and the Essential Plan continues year-round.)

Open enrollment for 2018 coverage followed the same November to January schedule, ending on January 31, 2018. In May 2018, New York State of Health published an enrollment report, noting that total enrollment in public and private plans through the exchange (including Medicaid, the Essential Plan, Child Health Plus, and private plans) had reached 4.3 million people by the end of January, which was an increase of 700,000 people compared with the year before.

At the end of the open enrollment period for 2018 coverage, enrollment was as follows:

253,102 people had enrolled in private health plans, aka QHPs.
738,851 people had enrolled in the Essential Plan (a Basic Health Program for people with income up to 200 percent of the poverty level)
374,577 people had enrolled in Child Health Plus
2,965,863 people had enrolled in Medicaid
New York’s QHP enrollment numbers dropped in 2016, which was due in part to the Essential Plan becoming available. The Essential Plan also reduced the percentage of QHP enrollees who received premiums subsidies, dropping from 70 percent in 2015 to 55 percent in 2016. That had increased to 59 percent by 2018.

Read more about the New York health insurance marketplace.

Health Republic CO-OP closed in November 2015
One of the available plans during the first two open enrollment periods was an ACA-created Consumer Oriented and Operated Plan (CO-OP). Under the ACA, the federal government awarded $2 billion in start-up funding to CO-OPs in 22 states.

In New York, the CO-OP was Freelancers Health Service Corporation (also known as Health Republic), which received $174 million in federal funding. The CO-OP was highly successful in terms of enrollments, garnering about 20 percent of the individual market in New York in both 2014 and 2015. However, it struggled financially, and in September 2015, state and federal regulators shut down the CO-OP.

Learn more about the Affordable Care Act’s CO-OPs.

New York Medicaid/CHIP enrollment
Medicaid/CHIP enrollment in New York increased by 14 percent from the fall of 2013 to July 2018. The state’s acceptance of federal funding to expand Medicaid eligibility to 138 percent of poverty has played a significant role in New York’s Obamacare success.

The ACA called for Medicaid expansion nationwide, but in 2012 the Supreme Court ruled that states could opt out, and 19 states have not yet expanded their Medicaid programs.

During the first open enrollment period, the Kaiser Family Foundation estimated that about 43 percent of the 2.2 million non-elderly uninsured residents in New York would be eligible for Medicaid or CHIP under the expanded eligibility guidelines created by the ACA. Eligible applicants can enroll in New York Medicaid year-round, so total enrollment has continued to increase, further lowering the uninsured rate in New York.

The addition of the Essential Plan in 2016 helped to smooth the transition between Medicaid and private health plans. People with income a little too high for Medicaid (139 percent to 200 percent of the federal poverty level) qualify for the Essential Plan instead of having to enroll in a subsidized private plan. Enrollment in the Essential Plan had reached 740,000 people by 2018, and will continue to have premiums of $20/month or less in 2019.

Read more about Medicaid expansion in New York.

Short-term health insurance in New York


The state of New York requires health plans to be guaranteed renewable and cover essential health benefits. As a result of those two regulations, the state does not allow the sale of short-term health plans, despite new federal short-term rules.

Read more about short-term health insurance in New York.

How Obamacare has helped New York
In most of the United States, individual health insurance was medically underwritten prior to 2014, meaning that people with pre-existing conditions were often unable to purchase private coverage. But in New York, former Gov. Mario Cuomo signed a law in 1992 that required all policies in the state to be guaranteed issue, regardless of medical history. They also switched to a community rating system, with the same premiums charged for everyone, regardless of age.

Although the 1992 law was heralded by consumer advocates as a victory, it lacked two of the major market stabilization components that the ACA has now enacted. There were no open enrollment periods (people could buy coverage anytime they wanted), and there was no individual mandate, so people could wait until they were in need of care before purchasing health insurance.

Two decades later, health insurance premiums in New York were the highest in the nation, and coverage options were very limited, with few carriers choosing to participate in the market in New York.

The ACA brought much-needed changes to New York, keeping the guaranteed issue model (and in New York, coverage is still community-rated), but adding the vitally important individual mandate, limited enrollment period, and premium subsidies to make coverage affordable for middle class enrollees. As a result, the rates that the state approved for 2014 were an average of 50 percent lower than 2013 rates, and that was before factoring in the subsidies that 60 percent of New York State of health’s QHP enrollees receive (QHP stands for qualified health plan, which is another word for the private health plans offered for sale in the exchange, as opposed to Medicaid, the Essential Plan, and Child Health Plus). Officials in NY noted that 2018 premiums continue to be more than 50 percent lower than pre-2014 rates, despite modest rate increases each year.
In 2013, about 10.7 percent of New York residents were uninsured, according to US Census data. By 2017, that number had fallen by nearly half, to 5.7 percent. At that point, the average uninsured rate across the US was 8.7 percent, and just 13 states had uninsured rates lower than New York’s.

NY State of Health enrolled more than 4.3 million people during the open enrollment period for 2018 coverage, including enrollments in the Essential Plan, Child Health Plus, Medicaid, and individual qualified health plans.  Enrollments continue year-round for Medicaid, Child Health Plus, and the Essential Plan.

New York’s lawmakers and the Affordable Care Act
In 2010, New York’s U.S. senators (Democrats Kirsten Gillibrand and Charles Schumer) both voted yes on the ACA. In the U.S. House, 24 Democrats voted yes, while two Republicans and two Democrats (Michael McMahon and Michael Arcuri) voted no. Schumer and Gillibrand are still in the Senate. Both McMahon and Arcuri were replaced by new Democrats in 2013. The U.S. House delegation from New York currently consists of nine Republicans and 17 Democrats, with one vacant seat. We have a summary of how each of them has voted on key health care reform legislation.

In New York’s state legislature, there’s a strong Democratic majority in the House. Although the Senate also technically has a Democratic majority, nine Democrats caucus with the Republicans, including eight who belong to the Independent Democratic Conference (IDC). This has allowed Republicans to retain control of the state Senate, although the IDC members have signed on as co-sponsors of the legislation that would create a single-payer system in New York.

Democratic Governor Andrew Cuomo is an ardent supporter of the ACA, saying in 2012, “We look forward to continuing to work together with the Obama administration to ensure accessible, quality care for all New Yorkers.” He has continued with that support, moving ahead in January 2017 to implement regulations that protect contraceptive and abortion coverage at the state level, regardless of the future of the ACA under the Trump Administration.

The state has been fully on-board with ACA implementation from the start, opting for a state-run exchange (NY State of Health) and expanding Medicaid to cover residents with incomes up to 138 percent of poverty. The state was also only the second in the nation (after Minnesota) to implement the ACA’s provision to create a Basic Health Program, extending very low-cost health insurance (the Essential Plan) to residents with incomes up to 200 percent of the poverty level.

Medicare enrollment in New York
New York Medicare Medicare enrollment reached nearly 3.6 million enrollees in 2018 – almost 18 percent of the state’s population, which is consistent with the percentage of people enrolled in Medicare nationwide. As of 2016, about 85 percent of New York Medicare recipients qualify for coverage based on age alone, while the remaining 15 percent were on Medicare due to disability.

When it comes to spending, Original Medicare per-beneficiary spending in New York averaged $9,670 in 2016. That’s above  the national average spending of $9,533.

Those who want additional benefits beyond what original Medicare offers can choose a Medicare Advantage plan instead of traditional coverage. In New York, 38 percent of Medicare recipients had Medicare Advantage plans as of 2017.

Medicare Part D plans are also an option for Medicare beneficiaries who want to stand-alone prescription drug coverage. In 2018, nearly 1.5 million New York beneficiaries had a stand-alone Rx plan.

New York health insurance resources
Community Health Advocates
State-based health reform legislation
In 2014, New York lawmakers passed A.9205, the “Emergency Medical Services and Surprise Bills” law. This legislation took effect in 2015, and protects consumers in some circumstances from having to pay surprise balance bills when they’re treated by out-of-network providers at in-network facilities, or when they’re referred to an out-of-network provider by their in-network provider. A year later, the law was showing signs of being a “reasonable compromise” between competing interests of insurers, providers, and patients.
New York lawmakers have tried for years to pass single payer legislation (here is the 2018 version of the legislation), but although it has passed the state Assembly for several years in a row, the Senate has not passed it.

At the bottom of this page, we have a summary of other recent New York bills related to healthcare reform.


welve insurers offer 2019 health plans through state's exchange; the state extended open enrollment through January 31, 2019.
Louise Norris
Health insurance & health reform authority
December 16, 2018
Health insurance in New York

New York’s operates its own health exchange NY State of Health.
New York has long been a leader in health reform.
Twelve insurers are offering 2019 coverage through the state exchange.
Open enrollment for 2019 was extended through January 31, 2019. After that, residents would need a qualifying event to enroll in an ACA-compliant plan.
On average 2019 premiums have increased 8.6%
About 253,000 New York residents enrolled in 2018 QHPs through the state exchange.
Another 739,000 New Yorkers enrolled in the Essential Plan.
New York adopted Medicaid expansion in 2013. Medicaid enrollment has grown by 14% since 2013.
The state’s Health Republic CO-OP closed in 2015.
The state’s uninsured rate has dropped 47% since 2013.
New York does not allow the sale of short-term plans.
3.5 million New Yorkers are enrolled in Medicare.
New York overview: Taking advantage of all the ACA has to offer
New York has fully embraced the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The state expanded Medicaid, established its own health insurance exchange, and even created a Basic Health Program (BHP) for people who earn more than the Medicaid eligibility threshold, but not more than 200 percent of the poverty level. BHPs are allowed under the ACA, but only New York and Minnesota opted to create them.

Article written by Lisa Parcell
Lisa Parcell is an excellent insurance consultant.Her insurance knowledge can make any stand.She had a institute in Delhi where she gives her insurance consultancy.

Tuesday, 5 February 2019

Everything you need to know about mesothelioma Cancer

Everything you need to know about mesothelioma Cancer
Mesothelioma Cancer
Mesothelioma is a rare, aggressive form of cancer that develops in the linings of the lungs, abdomen, heart or testes. The only known cause of malignant mesothelioma is asbestos, though there are other potential risk factors. Due to a long latency period, symptoms may take 10 – 50 years to develop after exposure.

According to the most recent data, around 3,000 new cases of mesothelioma are diagnosed in the United States each year. The average life expectancy for mesothelioma patients is 12 – 21 months, but will vary based on tumor location, cell type, staging and patient characteristics. Currently there is no cure for the cancer, but surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and clinical trials can improve patient prognosis.

Mesothelioma Resources for Patients and Families
Learn about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Types, Stages and Prognosis
Connect with Top Mesothelioma Doctors
Learn about new Clinical Trials available
Learn about Asbestos and the Risks of Exposure
Read about current Mesothelioma Treatment options
Locate the Comprehensive Cancer Center closest to you
Speak with a 13-Year Mesothelioma Survivor
Visit our Blog for the latest Mesothelioma and Asbestos information
REQUEST A FREE 2019 MESOTHELIOMA GUIDE
Mesothelioma Causes
The only known cause of malignant mesothelioma is asbestos exposure. When asbestos is disturbed, microscopic fibers are released into the air and inhaled or ingested. Fibers can then lodge themselves into the lining of organs, including the lungs, heart, abdomen and testes, causing inflammation and leading to the development of mesothelioma. Though asbestos use has declined, it was used frequently prior to the 1980s and is still not fully banned, continuing to put people at risk.

Research studies have shown that there may be other causes of mesothelioma, though none of them have been proven, including zeolites, radiation exposure, simian virus 40 and high aspect ratio nanoparticles. Case studies have also found other potential risk factors for developing mesothelioma, like poor overall health and a history of smoking.

Types of Mesothelioma
Mesothelioma type is determined by tumor location. Mesothelioma cancer develops in the linings of certain organs or spaces within the body, known as the mesothelium.

There are four primary types of mesothelioma, including malignant pleural mesothelioma, peritoneal mesothelioma, pericardial mesothelioma and testicular mesothelioma. Pleural mesothelioma involves tumors within the pleura (lung linings). Peritoneal tumors develop in the peritoneum (abdominal linings), while pericardial tumors develop within the pericardium (heart linings), and testicular mesothelioma develops in the tunica vaginalis testis (testes linings). Pleural mesothelioma is the most common, followed by peritoneal, pericardial and testicular mesothelioma.


Pleural Mesothelioma
LUNGS
The most common type, pleural mesothelioma is caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers.

MORE
Peritoneal Mesothelioma
ABDOMEN
Inhaled or swallowed asbestos fibers can become trapped in the lining of the abdomen (the peritoneum).

MORE
Pericardial Mesothelioma
HEART
In rare cases, asbestos fibers can get lodged in the pericardium, the lining around the heart cavity.

MORE
Mesothelioma Cell Types
Mesothelioma types can be further broken down into cell types, including epithelial, sarcomatoid and biphasic. There are also rare cell types that have emerged in limited cases. Epithelioid mesothelioma is the most common, with cells that are slow to spread and responsive to cancer treatments. Sarcomatoid mesothelioma is the least common with cells that spread quickly and are less responsive to treatment. Biphasic mesothelioma involves a combination of both epithelial and sarcomatoid cells with varying growth patterns and responsiveness to treatment depending on which cell type is more dominant.

Diagnosing Mesothelioma Symptoms
Malignant mesothelioma has a long latency period of 10 – 50 years, meaning it can take decades for symptoms to emerge after exposure to asbestos, the only known cause of mesothelioma. When disturbed, asbestos fibers are inhaled and become lodged in the linings of organs, leading to development of the cancer.

Mesothelioma symptoms are nonspecific and often mimic other more common diseases, frequently leading to misdiagnoses like lung cancer. Symptoms may vary for mesothelioma patients based on type, cell type and staging, however, there are common symptoms that patients and physicians can look out for.

Common Mesothelioma Symptoms
Abdominal and chest pain and swelling
Coughing
Difficulty breathing (dyspnea)
Fatigue
Fever and night sweats
Fluid buildup (pleural effusion or peritoneal effusion)
Loss of appetite
Unexplained weight loss
The best way to improve mesothelioma prognosis is through early detection. Patients who exhibit mesothelioma symptoms should seek medical care immediately to begin the diagnostic process. A mesothelioma diagnosis typically involves the following:

Imaging scans: X-rays, MRI scans, CT scans, PET scans and ultrasounds are used to look for tumors and abnormalities.
Blood tests and biomarkers: Various blood tests may be able to detect certain biomarkers in the blood that suggest the presence of mesothelioma, show mesothelioma symptoms or reveal a history of asbestos exposure.
Biopsies: A biopsy is the only definitive way to diagnose mesothelioma, as a tissue or fluid sample is taken to determine malignancy, cancer type, cell type and staging through a study known as pathology.
Stages of Mesothelioma
Staging mesothelioma involves a doctor categorizing the disease into one of four stages. Pleural mesothelioma is the only type with its own staging systems, including the Butchart staging system, Brigham staging system and TNM staging system. The TNM system (tumor, lymph nodes and metastasis) is the most commonly used, as it’s frequently updated with recent case studies and advancements in mesothelioma research. Other types of mesothelioma are staged by using more general cancer and mesothelioma characteristics.

Staging will help provide patients and physicians with a better understanding of how the disease will progress, what symptoms can be expected, prognosis and what treatment options are viable.

Stage 1 Mesothelioma
During stage 1, the mesothelioma tumor is localized to one area of the body without distant metastasis. Symptoms can be unrecognizable or are very limited. Treatment options typically can be aggressive, and a multimodal approach is common with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Stage 2 Mesothelioma
Mesothelioma cancer may have spreading to nearby tissues, organs or lymph nodes, but there is no distant metastasis. Aggressive treatments may still be an option, including a multimodal approach.

Stage 3 Mesothelioma
Tumors have typically spread beyond the local area to several nearby locations and to the lymph nodes. Treatment options may be limited during this stage, and curative surgery usually isn’t an option. Many patients undergo palliative treatment to reduce symptoms, and they may be eligible for clinical trials.

Stage 4 Mesothelioma
Distant metastasis is present as cancer has spread to nearby and distant organs, tissues and lymph nodes. Most treatment plans for stage 4 patients consist of primarily palliative treatments to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.

Mesothelioma Prognosis and Survival
After a doctor confirms a mesothelioma diagnosis and determines the stage of the disease, they will be able to provide a prognosis and life expectancy estimate. Prognosis can vary greatly based on mesothelioma staging at the time of diagnosis. Patients diagnosed in the earlier stages generally have a much better prognosis than those diagnosed at later stages. However, prognosis is also affected by mesothelioma type and cell type, as well as patient characteristics like age, gender and overall health. Patients should discuss their individual case with a mesothelioma specialist to better understand their prognosis.

Prognosis
Prognosis
How a disease will progress. A prognosis can be good or bad and may have a survival time estimate.
MORE Life Expectancy
Life Expectancy
How long a patient can expect to survive. This may change with treatment and other developments.
MORE Survival Rate
Survival Rate
A statistic (percentage or ratio) indicating how many people live a certain amount of time after diagnosis.
MORE
Treating Mesothelioma
Treatment for mesothelioma is similar to other types of cancer. The most common treatment is a multimodal approach of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, though these treatments may be used individually as well. In some cases, treatment can improve a patient's prognosis, sometimes improving life expectancy to five years or more.

Surgery: Aims to remove as much of the cancer as possible, but can also be used palliatively to reduce tumor size or remove fluid buildup to alleviate pressure and relieve associated symptoms.
Chemotherapy: Aims to kill fast-growing cancer cells or to kill remaining mesothelioma cells after surgery.
Radiation therapy: Aims to damage cancer cells to hinder growth and reduce symptoms.
Newer treatments like immunotherapy are being studied as part of clinical trials and may be available for some patients who do not respond to conventional therapies. Palliative treatments can also be used at any time to reduce pain and discomfort caused by the symptoms or side effects of mesothelioma treatment.

Mesothelioma Doctors
Since malignant mesothelioma is rare, not many doctors have experience with the disease. However, there are mesothelioma specialists around the country who have expertise in diagnosing and treating the disease, as well as lead research studies and conduct clinical trials to improve diagnostic tools and develop new treatments. A mesothelioma specialist can provide patients with a better understanding of how the disease will progress, what their treatment options are and what emerging clinical trials may be available to help improve their prognosis.

Top Mesothelioma Doctors in the Country
James Pingpank, M.D.
James Pingpank, M.D.
Surgical Oncologist
Map Marker UPMC Hillman Cancer Center
Get Connected
Raphael Bueno, M.D.
Raphael Bueno, M.D.
Chief, Division of Thoracic Surgery; Co-Director, The Lung Center
Map Marker Brigham and Women's Hospital
Get Connected
Mesothelioma Cancer Clinics
There are mesothelioma clinics and cancer centers around the country that are dedicated to providing mesothelioma patients with specialized care during their treatment journey. These centers are equipped with the latest technology and treatment techniques available, along with specialists that have experiencing dealing with the cancer. Patients and their loved ones should locate a mesothelioma clinic to explore medical care specialized for their diagnosis.

Heather Von St. James – Mesothelioma Survivor
Watch Heather's Story
Heather Von St. James is a 13-year pleural mesothelioma survivor, who has become an inspiration and source of hope for other mesothelioma patients, as well as a spokeswoman for mesothelioma awareness and the need for an asbestos ban. Heather works with newly diagnosed patients to mentor and advocate for them, also helping them to understand treatment and legal options.

Heather experienced an aggressive, life-saving surgery (extrapleural pneumonectomy) that removed one of her lungs, a hugely successful treatment by Dr. David Sugarbaker. Her treatment has allowed her to offer valuable insight to others exploring treatment options, while also sharing her unique perspective and story with the mesothelioma community. Click here to connect with Heather.

Mesothelioma survivors also help raise awareness of the rare cancer and offer hope to those newly diagnosed. While there is no cure for the disease, there are survivors that share their successful treatment journeys. With the support of survivors, members of the mesothelioma community, friends and family members, patients are never alone. If you have a loved one that has recently been diagnosed, offering comfort and support to them can make a huge difference during their treatment journey.

Support & Resources for Mesothelioma Patients
Read warrior stories from mesothelioma survivors
Learn more about Heather Von St. James’ journey
Discover the latest mesothelioma news and events
Find resources for mesothelioma patients, caregivers and loved ones
Mesothelioma Legal Rights
Before the 1980s, asbestos was used frequently in many different industries, leading to occupational exposure of millions of workers each year and secondhand exposure among workers’ loved ones. Asbestos companies produced many asbestos products, from construction materials to consumer goods, that individuals came into contact with on a daily basis, heightening their risk of developing mesothelioma and other asbestos cancers. Even after the risks of asbestos were recognized, companies continued to put people at risk, leading to many of today’s cancer diagnoses and mesothelioma lawsuits.

There are many costs associated with a mesothelioma diagnosis, including diagnostic and treatment expenses, travel and lodging expenses and lost wages. Because of the asbestos companies’ negligence, mesothelioma patients and their loved ones have legal rights that may entitle them to compensation to help cover these expenses. A mesothelioma lawyer can offer specialized insight into what options are available and answer all questions regarding eligibility, especially for patients diagnosed decades after exposure to asbestos.

Financial assistance may include the following:

Legal Settlements: Victims of asbestos exposure can recover money from companies that produced, made and distributed asbestos products.
Veteran Benefits: Individuals exposed to asbestos while serving in the military can receive help through the Veterans Administration.
Asbestos Trust Funds: Trust funds have been established by former asbestos companies to pay for asbestos-related medical expenses.
"mesothelioma cancer alliance
mesothelioma cancer center
mesothelioma cancer alliance scholarship
mesothelioma cancer ribbon
mesothelioma cancer ribbon color
mesothelioma cancer color
mesothelioma cancer lawyer
mesothelioma cancer causes
mesothelioma cancer treatment
mesothelioma cancer attorney 2018
mesothelioma cancer alliance facebook
mesothelioma cancer australia
mesothelioma cancer alliance blog
mesothelioma cancer abdomen
mesothelioma cancer adalah
mesothelioma cancer abdominal
the mesothelioma cancer alliance scholarship
the mesothelioma cancer alliance
mesothelioma breast cancer
mesothelioma bladder cancer
mesothelioma bowel cancer
mesothelioma bone cancer
mesothelioma brain cancer
mesothelioma blood cancer
mesothelioma treatment breakthrough
mesothelioma best treatment
mesothelioma cancer charity
mesothelioma cancer cells
mesothelioma cancer council
mesothelioma cancer cure
mesothelioma cancer compensation
mesothelioma cancer diagnosis
mesothelioma cancer donation
mesothelioma cancer digital x hub
mesothelioma cancer dogs
cancer mesothelioma death
mesothelioma treatment drugs
mesothelioma treatment duration
mesothelioma diagnosis treatment
mesothelioma disease treatment
mesothelioma cancer en español
mesothelioma cancer effects
mesothelioma cancer exposure
mesothelioma esophageal cancer
mesothelioma epithelial cancer
mesothelioma treatment emedicine
mesothelioma treatment europe
mesothelioma treatment epp
mesothelioma cancer life expectancy
mesothelioma cancer stages explained
mesothelioma cancer forum
mesothelioma cancer foods
mesothelioma for cancer patients
mesothelioma treatment for stage 1
mesothelioma cancer risk factors
mesothelioma future treatment
what does mesothelioma cancer feel like
mesothelioma cancer grades
mesothelioma treatment guidelines
mesothelioma treatment germany
peritoneal mesothelioma cancer gene
mesothelioma cancer how long
mesothelioma cancer help
mesothelioma treatment houston
is mesothelioma cancer hereditary
mesothelioma cancer that has spread
mesothelioma herbal treatment
mesothelioma holistic treatment
mesothelioma cancer in stomach
mesothelioma cancer in dogs
mesothelioma cancer in the lungs
mesothelioma cancer info
mesothelioma cancer is rare
mesothelioma cancer in veterans
mesothelioma cancer image
mesothelioma treatment in india
i have mesothelioma cancer
mesothelioma kidney cancer
mesothelioma treatment keytruda
mesothelioma cancer lung lining
mesothelioma cancer lawsuit uk
mesothelioma cancer lungs
mesothelioma cancer link
mesothelioma cancer medications
mesothelioma macmillan cancer support
mesothelioma treatment mayo clinic
mesothelioma treatment mexico
mesothelioma treatment medscape
mesothelioma treatment method
mesothelioma multimodality treatment
malignant mesothelioma cancer
metastatic mesothelioma cancer
mesothelioma cancer nhs
mesothelioma cancer nedir
mesothelioma treatment nice guidelines
mesothelioma treatment nz
mesothelioma treatment nccn
mesothelioma treatment news
mesothelioma treatment nice
mesothelioma natural treatment
mesothelioma no treatment
mesothelioma new treatment australia
mesothelioma cancer of abdomen
mesothelioma cancer of the liver
mesothelioma cancer operation
mesothelioma cancer of the
mesothelioma ovarian cancer
mesothelioma oral cancer
mesothelioma treatment options
mesothelioma cancer pdf
mesothelioma cancer pain
mesothelioma cancer pictures
mesothelioma cancer pulmonar
mesothelioma cancer patient
mesothelioma peritoneal cancer
mesothelioma pancreatic cancer
mesothelioma prostate cancer
cancer mesothelioma pleural
mesothelioma cancer rates
mesothelioma cancer risk
mesothelioma cancer recovery
mesothelioma rare cancer
mesothelioma treatment review
mesothelioma cancer survival rate
mesothelioma cancer scholarship
mesothelioma cancer stage 4
mesothelioma cancer statistics
mesothelioma cancer survivors
mesothelioma cancer stem cells
mesothelioma cancer spreading
mesothelioma cancer specialists
is mesothelioma cancer
is mesothelioma cancer curable
is mesothelioma cancer contagious
is mesothelioma cancer painful
is mesothelioma lung cancer
is mesothelioma always cancer
is all mesothelioma cancer
is peritoneal mesothelioma cancer curable
mesothelioma cancer type
mesothelioma cancer trials
mesothelioma cancer tumor
mesothelioma cancer therapies
mesothelioma cancer t shirt
mesothelioma testicular cancer
mesothelioma throat cancer
mesothelioma cancer uk
mesothelioma treatment uk
mesothelioma treatment uptodate
mesothelioma treatment usa
asbestos lung cancer vs mesothelioma
mesothelioma cancer what is it
mesothelioma cancer wikipedia
mesothelioma treatment wiki
mesothelioma without treatment
cancer/mesothelioma-11211
mesothelioma treatment 2018
mesothelioma cancer club 2018 lawyer assistance
stage 3 mesothelioma cancer
stage 3 mesothelioma cancer survival rate
mesothelioma cancer stage 4 symptoms
peritoneal mesothelioma cancer stage 4
stage 4 mesothelioma cancer
stage 4 mesothelioma cancer survival rates
stage 4 mesothelioma cancer symptoms
stage 4 mesothelioma lung cancer
stage 4 peritoneal mesothelioma cancer"

Ho can we safely Donate our things to needy people

Ho can we safely Donate our things to needy people

Cost of donating by text and what Cancer Research UK receives
All texts are charged at the amount set out for the relevant keyword below plus one message at your standard network rate (based on your service provider rates); the charge will show on your bill and the sender will show as a five digit number.

100% of your text donation will be received by us.

There is no limit on the number of times you may make a donation via text but there is a daily limit of £30 on text donations. You will not be able to donate more by text from the same number on the same day, but you may still incur your standard network message charge if you try.

Gift Aid
Your donation may be eligible for Gift Aid. We may contact you on the mobile number you used to give you the opportunity to add Gift Aid to your donation. If we send you a link to a page where you can submit your details then, as with any mobile browsing, you may incur charges from your network provider when visiting that page. If we ask you to text those details, then a standard network message charge (based on your service provider rates) will be incurred.

How to contact us

If you would like to discuss your mobile payment, please contact us on 0300 123 1861 (Monday to Friday from 8am - 6pm (call charges apply)).

For campaigns using one of the “Other Keywords” listed below, please call 020 3282 7863.

Data Protection
All personal data held by us will be handled in accordance with applicable privacy laws and Cancer Research UK’s privacy statement which can be found here.

How to unsubscribe
If you do not wish to receive any further mobile communications from Cancer Research UK at all in the future please contact our Supporter Services team by:

Telephone - 0300 123 1861 Monday - Friday from 8am - 6pm (call charges apply)

Email - supporter.services@cancer.org.uk

​Service provider
For campaigns using one of the “Other Keywords” listed below, this SMS service is being provided for Cancer Research UK by Open Mobile Global Limited, Holborn Studios, 49-50 Eagle Wharf Road, London N1 7ED.

For all other campaigns this SMS service is provided by Open Market Limited, 15th Floor, 389 Chiswick High Road, Chiswick, London W4 4AJ.
Donating to Cancer Research UK by text message is a quick and easy way to help us bring forward the day when all cancers are cured. All you have to do is text the relevant keyword to the 5 digit shortcode indicated below and your donation will be added to your phone bill or deducted from your pay as you go credit.

How will my donation be spent?
Find out more about what we do, or see a detailed breakdown of how we've spent our income in our annual review.

Can I donate by text?
You must be 16 years old or over to send a text donation, unless a different age limit is specified next to the relevant keyword below.

Where can I send text donations from?
You can only donate from a UK mobile. You cannot donate using this service from a Channel Island, Isle of Man or other non-UK mobile. You must obtain permission from the bill payer before sending a text message.

Cancer Research UK does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for any technical failure, malfunction, congestion, capacity issues or any other problem with any telephone, telephone network or line, system, server, provider or otherwise which may result in any text being lost, delayed or not properly received and recorded.

Monthly Giving
You can also give a monthly donation to Cancer Research UK by text message, which you can stop at any time. For more information and to find the Monthly Giving terms and conditions, please go to http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/terms-and-conditions/giving-by-text.

The following Campaigns are live until the closing date shown. If you text after the closing date or if the keyword or shortcode you text are incorrect or you do not correctly follow the instructions in these Terms and Conditions, you will not make a donation to Cancer Research UK but you may still be charged a message at your standard network rate.

"give charity in secret
give charity without delay
give charity quotes
give charity gift
give charity online
give charity synonym
give charity donation as a gift
give charity islam
give charity run 2018
give charity as a gift
give a charity gift this christmas
give all charity
give as charity crossword
give a charity
charity give a cow
give a charity gift
give a goat charity
give a cow charity
give a duck charity
give a book charity
give a car charity
give a little charity
give charity boxes
give blood charity
give back charity
give better charity
give it charity brisbane
give to charity before tax
give to charity by text
give something back charity christmas cards
baby give back charity
give car charity
give to charity crossword clue
give charity for christmas
give to charity.com
give toys to charity christmas
give directly charity
give directly charity navigator
give directly charity rating
give to charity day
give to charity definition
just give charity donations
give a charity donation
give easy charity
givewell charity evaluator
good to give charity edinburgh
give money to charity en español
give as you earn charity account
give as you earn charity list
give as you earn charity cheque
give charity en ingles
give for charity
give fundraising charity
young give charity for old man
give to charity for free
give money for charity
give back gifts - charity
give for good charity shop
give for good charity shop ripley
give away glasses charity
give and grow charity
give charity hadith
give hope charity
give hands charity
charity give homeless
give an hour charity
give and take charity hills district
give clothes to charity hong kong
give charity with right hand
give a handbag charity
give it charity
give india charity
give to charity in someone's name
can i give charity to non muslim
why should i give charity
i don't give to charity
why i give to charity quotes
can i give to charity from my ira
i give my poetry to charity
give joy charity
first give charity jobs
give st jude charity
just give charity
just give charity uk
give kidney charity
give love charity
give local charity
big give charity login
give clothes charity london
givewell charity list
give now charity login
give to live charity
give furniture to charity london
give charity muslim
give me charity
give mattress charity
give to charity meme
give and makeup charity
give old clothes charity mumbai
give clothes to charity manchester
give charity number
give now charity
give to charity nba 2k18
givewell charity navigator
give clothes to charity near me
give money to charity nba 2k18
give hair to charity nz
give toys to charity near me
give n take charity
give charity organisation
give org charity
give only charity
give to charity or sell
give to charity on a budget
give to charity organizations
can you give charity on behalf of someone
give gift of charity
can i give charity on behalf of someone
benefits of give charity
give charity plugin
give charity project
give pushchair charity
give to charity paypal
give to charity poem
companies that give charity prizes
give charity to the poor
give a life charity foundation philippines
person give charity
give charity quran
give charity islam q&a
give to charity rather than xmas cards
give india charity review
givewell charity rating
give charity in ramadan
thaioil give the charity run 2018
give charity sentence
give shade charity
give someone charity
give to charity shop
give to give charity shop hayes
give it sum charity
give to charity
give to charity as a gift
give to charity for christmas
give to charity through amazon
charity give us time
give up charity
give hair to charity uk
never give up charity
give toys to charity uk
give mattress to charity uk
give car to charity uk
give furniture to charity uk
give books to charity uk
give to charity via text
give to charity via paypal
why give to charity video
verb give charity
give charity websites
givewell charity
give water charity
give wisely charity
just give charity website
give to charity with amazon
why should we give charity
why do we give charity in islam
charity give as you earn
you give charity
give charity zakat
give 1 to charity
give 2 charity
give money to charity 2k18
give all 2 charity
give endorsement money to charity 2k18
give up chocolate for charity 2019
good 2 give charity
give 30 charity
sims 3 give to charity
sims 4 give to charity
give me 5 charity
give to charity 6 letters"

Learn How to give Charity

Learn How to give Charity

5 Support a toy box scheme
Not every child has toys or games, so buying an extra toy for a toy box scheme such as KidsOut can go a long way to putting a smile on someone’s face.

Find out more about KidsOut

GIVE YOUR TIME
6 Donate blood
Donating blood regularly - or even as a one-off - is a great way to ensure that you're giving back to those who need it. By giving blood, every donor is contributing to a nationwide challenge to provide life-saving products whenever and wherever they are needed.

Find out more and search for your nearest venue

7 Volunteer your time in a soup kitchen or homeless shelter
Charities really appreciate volunteers and there are likely to be organisations in your community that could use an extra pair of helping hands. It’s a great way to meet new people and develop skills to use at work or university.

Start thinking about volunteering

8 Take part in a charity run
Completing a charity run is a great social event which can make you feel great while helping a cause close to your heart. It also gives you an excuse to tuck into some goodies as a reward.

Find out more about running for charity

9 Get involved with Decembeard
Men – why not ditch your routine and grow a beard for charity? You can spend the time you’d normally spend shaving to do a good deed for someone.

Find out more about Decembeard

10 Sell or donate your unwanted gifts
If you receive unwanted presents, why not spend some time selling them on eBay, Amazon or Gumtree and donate the proceeds to the charity of your choice. Use our charity search for inspiration.

HELP A STRANGER
1 Help a stranger and make their day
According to the World Giving Index 2018, 63% of people in the UK helped a stranger last year. Why not carry on the trend and hold a door open, give up your seat on the train or just smile for someone you don’t know?

Share your good deeds on Twitter and Facebook.

2 Teach your kids about giving
Get your children involved by talking to them about the importance of giving. Giving unwanted toys to those less fortunate, smiling at someone on the street, holding doors open for people or visiting a sick relative is still charity because it warms someone's heart.

Start your children's giving

3 Donate blankets, gloves, coats etc.
Spare a thought for those who are homeless or in temporary accommodation. Use our charity search to donate to a homeless charity near you.

4 Be a bobble hat hero
Encourage your children to come to school wearing their favourite bobble hat and raise money to make a difference for other young people.

ENCOURAGE OTHERS TO GIVE
11 Shout loud on social media
Share one of our quirky Facebook wall posts to raise awareness for a cause close to your heart. It’s a free and easy way to support a charity at any time of year.

Join us on Facebook

12 Hold a fancy dress day, or a dress down day
Have a dress down day, or a themed fancy dress day, at work and charge your colleagues to get involved.

13 Hold a raffle for charity
If you’ve got chocolates or biscuits leftover from a party, why not raffle them – and other unwanted goodies – for charity? You can pool your money while you decide who to donate to.

Tell your employer about the CAF Staff Charity Fund

14 Organise a charity shop Secret Santa
Rather than buying your annual Secret Santa present from a high street shop, agree to buy your gifts from a charity shop. Your favourite causes will benefit and you’ll receive an unusual and unique present!

Don’t forget to let us know what you got!

15 Encourage your employer to develop a charity partnership for 2018
If your employer isn’t already partnered with a charity, speak to your CSR or HR colleagues about getting involved. Let them know that they can contact one of our expert advisers for help.

GIVE MONEY
16 Support national giving days such as #givingtuesday
Join us again to celebrate all that’s good about giving. Whether you’re an individual, a company or a charity, there are plenty of ways to get involved in national events throughout the year.

Get involved with #givingtuesday

17 Donate money
Give a gift that makes a difference by donating to your favourite cause by credit or debit card, PayPal or CAF Charity Account. UK taxpayers can add an extra 25p for every £1 you donate through Gift Aid.

Donate now

18 Sign up for payroll giving in 2018
If your employer offers a payroll giving scheme, such as CAF Give As You Earn, you can donate from your pre-tax salary and benefit from the full income tax relief.

Get started with payroll giving

19 Think global on International Human Solidarity Day
Every December, the United Nations General Assembly encourages people around the world to think about the value of human solidarity. Why not donate to an overseas charity?

20 Throw an office party for charity
Throw an office party and encourage everyone to contribute. Send round a donation tin to collect donations for your favourite cause and encourage your employer to match your contributions.

Get started with matched giving

MAKE MORE OF YOUR MONEY
21 Shop Fairtrade
Help support artists in developing countries by buying Fairtrade presents. You’re sure to be able to find something unique for those closest to you.

Go Fairtrade this year

22 Give as you shop
If you’re avoiding the busy high streets and doing your shopping online, sign up to a retail website which donates to charity every time you shop with them.

Shop with Give as you Live

23 Send charity Christmas cards
Double your charitable giving by sending a charity Christmas card. Look in your local charity shop or on your favourite charity’s website for their range of cards.

We can help you find a cause that’s close to your heart.

24 Leave a gift to charity in your Will
December 21 may be the shortest day, but your giving can be long-term. A charity legacy is a tax-effective way to give, and allows you peace of mind that your giving will live on.

Find out more about charitable legacies

25 Gift your financial assets
If you have HMRC-qualifying shares, you might want to consider putting these to good use by gifting them to charity.

give charity in secret
give charity without delay
give charity quotes
give charity gift
give charity online
give charity synonym
give charity donation as a gift
give charity islam
give charity run 2018
give charity as a gift
give a charity gift this christmas
give all charity
give as charity crossword
give a charity
charity give a cow
give a charity gift
give a goat charity
give a cow charity
give a duck charity
give a book charity
give a car charity
give a little charity
give charity boxes
give blood charity
give back charity
give better charity
give it charity brisbane
give to charity before tax
give to charity by text
give something back charity christmas cards
baby give back charity
give car charity
give to charity crossword clue
give charity for christmas
give to charity.com
give toys to charity christmas
give directly charity
give directly charity navigator
give directly charity rating
give to charity day
give to charity definition
just give charity donations
give a charity donation
give easy charity
givewell charity evaluator
good to give charity edinburgh
give money to charity en español
give as you earn charity account
give as you earn charity list
give as you earn charity cheque
give charity en ingles
give for charity
give fundraising charity
young give charity for old man
give to charity for free
give money for charity
give back gifts - charity
give for good charity shop
give for good charity shop ripley
give away glasses charity
give and grow charity
give charity hadith
give hope charity
give hands charity
charity give homeless
give an hour charity
give and take charity hills district
give clothes to charity hong kong
give charity with right hand
give a handbag charity
give it charity
give india charity
give to charity in someone's name
can i give charity to non muslim
why should i give charity
i don't give to charity
why i give to charity quotes
can i give to charity from my ira
i give my poetry to charity
give joy charity
first give charity jobs
give st jude charity
just give charity
just give charity uk
give kidney charity
give love charity
give local charity
big give charity login
give clothes charity london
givewell charity list
give now charity login
give to live charity
give furniture to charity london
give charity muslim
give me charity
give mattress charity
give to charity meme
give and makeup charity
give old clothes charity mumbai
give clothes to charity manchester
give charity number
give now charity
give to charity nba 2k18
givewell charity navigator
give clothes to charity near me
give money to charity nba 2k18
give hair to charity nz
give toys to charity near me
give n take charity
give charity organisation
give org charity
give only charity
give to charity or sell
give to charity on a budget
give to charity organizations
can you give charity on behalf of someone
give gift of charity
can i give charity on behalf of someone
benefits of give charity
give charity plugin
give charity project
give pushchair charity
give to charity paypal
give to charity poem
companies that give charity prizes
give charity to the poor
give a life charity foundation philippines
person give charity
give charity quran
give charity islam q&a
give to charity rather than xmas cards
give india charity review
givewell charity rating
give charity in ramadan
thaioil give the charity run 2018
give charity sentence
give shade charity
give someone charity
give to charity shop
give to give charity shop hayes
give it sum charity
give to charity
give to charity as a gift
give to charity for christmas
give to charity through amazon
charity give us time
give up charity
give hair to charity uk
never give up charity
give toys to charity uk
give mattress to charity uk
give car to charity uk
give furniture to charity uk
give books to charity uk
give to charity via text
give to charity via paypal
why give to charity video
verb give charity
give charity websites
givewell charity
give water charity
give wisely charity
just give charity website
give to charity with amazon
why should we give charity
why do we give charity in islam
charity give as you earn
you give charity
give charity zakat
give 1 to charity
give 2 charity
give money to charity 2k18
give all 2 charity
give endorsement money to charity 2k18
give up chocolate for charity 2019
good 2 give charity
give 30 charity
sims 3 give to charity
sims 4 give to charity
give me 5 charity
give to charity 6 letters

organ donation among adult population of urban Puducherry, South India

organ donation among adult population of urban Puducherry, South India

All adults aged 18 years and above and their address details were obtained from the line list. The line list of adults was maintained at JIUHC, by regular yearly household survey by field staff, public health nurse, and nursing sister in-charge. Two hundred and ninety-two adults were randomly selected (keeping nonresponse rate as 10%) using this line list through simple random sampling. All the adults aged 18 years and above and residing in JIUHC service area for >6 months were included in the study. Individuals who were not able to understand and answer questionnaire were excluded from the study.

All the selected individuals were contacted through household visit and questionnaire was administered by data collectors after obtaining informed written consent. The purpose and motive of the study were explained to the participants. Six training doctors posted in urban health center were chosen as data collectors. They were sensitized regarding the objectives of the study, confidentiality of information, participant's right and informed consent, and were also trained to administer the questionnaire to the participants. Postgraduates posted in the same urban health centre supervised the data collection procedure by reviewing all questionnaires at the end of each day. If the house was locked or individual was found missing even after two consecutive visits, then that particular individual was considered as nonrespondent and subsequently excluded from the study.

Semi-structured questionnaire was used after pilot testing for about 10 individuals attending outpatient service in urban health centre. Questionnaire contained sociodemographic details of individuals such as age, gender, occupation, education, marital status, religion, type of family, and socioeconomic class. Details regarding their awareness about organ donation, source of information regarding organ donation, their attitude and willingness to donate organ in future, awareness regarding procedure and place of registration, as well as current registration status for organ donation was also captured.

Knowledge regarding organ donation was assessed based on three domains. It included whether they have heard about organ donation or not, knowledge regarding eligibility status for organ donation, and knowledge regarding the place of registration for organ donation. Participants who were able to answer correctly for all the three domains were considered to have adequate knowledge regarding organ donation.

Attitude toward organ donation was assessed based on two domains. It included their willingness to donate organ in future and persons to whom they are willing to donate organs. Participants who answered as willing to donate organ in future as well as willing to donate to unknown members were considered to have good attitude toward organ donation. Practice of organ donation was assessed based on their current registration status for organ donation.

Statistical analysis
Data were entered using Epidata Entry 3.1 and analyzed using STATA version 12.0. Continuous variables such as age of the participants and age at which the participant registered for organ donation were summarized as mean (standard deviation [SD]) or median (interquartile range) based on their normality in distribution. Categorical variables such as gender, occupation, religion, socioeconomic class, awareness regarding organ donation, source of information and knowledge, and attitude and practice regarding registration of organ donation were summarized as frequency (percentages). Binary logistic regression (Chi-square test/Fisher exact test) was used to find the association between sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation which were summarized as odds ratio (OR). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Go to:
Results
Totally 292 individuals were contacted, out of which 257 individuals were included in the study. Out of the 35 individuals who were not included in the study, we could not contact 15 individuals as the house was locked even after two consecutive visits or change of address. Rest 20 individuals were not able to understand and respond to the questionnaire. Response rate was 88%.

The mean (SD) age in years of the study population was 44.6 (15.4). Table 1 depicts sociodemographic characteristics of the study participants. Majority 147 (57.2%) were females; 127 (49.4%) were unemployed which includes homemaker, ex-serviceman, pensioner, and retired personals; 195 (75.9%) were married; and 213 (82.9%) belonged to Hindu religion. Almost one-third of the study participants, 78 (29.9%) were graduates; more than half, 137 (53.3%) belonged to nuclear family and nearly one-fourth, 62 (24.1%) belonged lower middle socioeconomic class according to modified BG Prasad classification May 2016.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05–0.08 per million population. The National Organ and Tissue Transplant Programme have planned strategies to improve organ donation by creating awareness and capacity building. There is great need to assess the knowledge regarding organ donation among general population.

OBJECTIVE (S):
Among the adult population (≥18 years) residing in urban slum of Puducherry to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding organ donation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during April to May 2017 among 257 randomly selected participants in selected wards of urban Puducherry. Data regarding knowledge, attitude, and practice were collected through pretested semi-structured questionnaire.

RESULTS:
Mean (standard deviation) age of the study participants was 45 (15) years and majority (57%) were female, 41% of them were educated more than secondary. Almost 90% of the study participants have heard about organ donation. However, only 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.9–33.8) had adequate knowledge regarding organ donation. 58% (95% CI: 51.5–63.5) had positive attitude toward organ donation. Practice regarding registration for organ donation was only 2.3%. Knowledge regarding organ donation was more among joint family (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86, P = 0.02) and middle socioeconomic status (OR = 2.40, P = 0.01). Positive attitude was more among those who were educated above secondary (OR = 3.47, P = 0.001) and less among Muslim/Christian religion (OR = 0.49, P = 0.03).

CONCLUSION:
Less than one-third of the study population had adequate knowledge regarding organ donation. Even though more than half of them had positive attitude toward organ donation only six individuals registered for organ donation.

Keywords: Awareness, organ transplantation, urban health
Go to:
Introduction
“We make a living by what we get, but we make a life by what we give”– Winston Churchill. Organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment for many of the end-stage organ diseases as it increases life expectancy. Besides long-term survival benefits, organ donation also improves quality of life in many circumstances (for instance, in case of cornea, skin, or bone transplantations).[1]

As per data given by the Global Observatory on Donation and Transplantation, globally, there were around 1.2 lakh solid organs reported to be transplanted in 2015. This accounts for about 20.65 donations per million population. It was reported that there was an increase in trend of organ donation of about 5.8% since 2014. Yet, it was <10% of the global needs. Deceased organ donation has an advantage of decreasing this inequity. Globally, deceased organ donation rate, which is around 5.1 donations per million population makeup only one-fourth of the total organ transplantations.[2]

In India, a total of 7715 solid organ transplantations were done in 2015 equalling a rate of 5.9 donations per million population, trailing far behind the global trend. Certaintly, with 1.3 billion population, India is also lagging behind with respect to deceased organ donation with a rate of <1 per million population. The performance of Tamil Nadu, a southern state in India, deceased organ donation rate (1.3 per million population) was relatively better than the national performance (0.05–0.08 per million population). Although, India falls second in the number of live donor transplants, next only to the USA, but stands nowhere in the list of deceased donor transplantation.[3] Recent studies report that India is in need of 260,000 organs every year, which translates to about 180,000 kidneys, 30,000 livers, and 50,000 hearts, whereas only 6000 kidneys, 1200 livers, and 15 hearts are transplanted annually.[4]

Thus, it is clear that the primary hindrance to the organ transplantation program in India is the shortage of donor organs. There is an urgent need to identify the reasons for this wide gap between number of patients who are in need of transplantation and the availability of organs for transplantation in India.

While lack of awareness and negative attitude toward organ donation could be possible reasons for the gap between the need and availability of organs. Lack of awareness about the concept of brain death, religious attitudes, superstition related to rebirth, fear of misuse of organs, health risks due to organ donation, and lack of consensus among family members have been identified as potential barriers for successful implementation of organ donation program in India.[5]

There is a paucity of studies assessing the community's awareness, attitude, and practices with respect to organ donation in India. Hence, this study has been undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding organ donation among adult population in the selected wards of urban Puducherry.

Go to:
Materials and Methods
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2017 among the adult population residing in JIPMER Urban Health Centre (JIUHC) service area. JIUHC provides general outpatient services from 9.00 am to 4.30 pm for 6 days in a week. JIUHC caters to a population of about 9423 spread over four wards (Kurusukuppam, Vazhaikulam, Vaithikuppam, and Chinnayapuram). All the four wards were located along the coastal areas of Puducherry where fishing was the major occupation.

The sample size was calculated using OpenEpi (v 3.01 updated on 2013, USA).[6] Based on a previous study, assuming awareness regarding organ donation as 53%,[7] absolute precision of 6%, and 5% alpha error, the minimum sample size was calculated to be 266.

Table 1
Sociodemographic characteristics of the study participants belonging to selected wards of urban Puducherry, N=257

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is JEHP-7-117-g001.jpg
Open in a separate window
Table 2 shows the knowledge regarding organ donation determined based on three domains among the study participants. Nearly nine out of ten, 229 (89.1%) have heard about organ donation in their lifetime, but only half of them had adequate knowledge regarding eligibility status for organ donation and place of registration for organ donation, 115 (44.8%) and 152 (59.1%), respectively. Overall, 72 (28%) had adequate knowledge regarding organ donation. (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.9–33.8)

Table 2
Knowledge regarding organ donation determined based on three domains among the study participants belonging to selected wards of urban Puducherry, N=257

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is JEHP-7-117-g002.jpg
Media was the only source of information in more than half, 130 (56.9%) of the study participants. Among those who have heard about organ donation (n = 229), more than half of them (130 [56.9%]) reported that media was the only source of information regarding organ donation. Majority (75 [32.3%]) believed that the eye, heart, and kidney are the organs that can be donated.

Table 3 represents attitude toward organ donation determined based on two domains among the study participants. More than half of the study participants, 151 (59%) thought about organ donation at any time in the past during their lifetime and 169 (66%) were willing to donate organ in the future. Among those who were willing for organ donation, more than three-fourth (186 [77.5%]) of them were willing to donate organ to unknown member.

Table 3
Attitude toward organ donation determined based on two domains among the study participants belonging to selected wards of urban Puducherry, N=257

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is JEHP-7-117-g003.jpg
Overall 60% (148) had positive attitude toward organ donation if they were willing to donate organ in future and willing to donate organs either to unknown members or to a medical college (95% CI: 51.5–63.5).

Only 6 (2.3%) were registered for organ donation. All six were registered for eye donation. The median (interquartile range) age of registration for organ donation was 23 (18–39).

Table 4 represents the association of sociodemographic characteristics with knowledge regarding organ donation. Chi-square test/Fisher exact test was used to find the association between sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge regarding organ donation. The study participants belonged to joint or three generation family (OR = 1.86) and middle socioeconomic status (OR = 2.40) were found to have more adequate knowledge regarding organ donation when compared to those belonged to nuclear family and lower socioeconomic status and also found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05).

Table 4
Association of sociodemographic characteristics with knowledge regarding organ donation determined based on three domains among the study participants belonging to selected wards of urban Puducherry, N=257

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is JEHP-7-117-g004.jpg
The study participants of age >30 years, female gender, educated from Class 1 to Class 10, employed, and single were found to have less adequate knowledge regarding organ donation. However, these variables are not statistically significant.

Table 5 represents the association of sociodemographic characteristics with attitude toward organ donation. The study participants educated 11th standard and above were found to have more positive attitude for organ donation (OR = 3.47) when compared to those who did not have any formal education. The study participants belonged to Muslim/Christian religion were found to have less positive attitude for organ donation (OR = 0.49) when compared to those who belonged Hindu religion and also found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05).

Table 5
Association of sociodemographic characteristics with attitude toward organ donation determined based on two domains among the study participants belonging to selected wards of urban Puducherry, N=257

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is JEHP-7-117-g005.jpg
The study participants of age >30 years and female gender were found to have less positive attitude toward organ donation. However, these variables are not statistically significant.

Go to:
Discussion
This cross-sectional study on organ donation which was done among the adult population of urban Puducherry reported that 28% (95% CI: 22.9–33.8) had adequate knowledge and 57.6% (95% CI: 51.5–63.5) had positive attitude toward organ donation. Practice of organ donation was also assessed among the study participants based on their registration status for organ donation. It was found that 2.3% were registered for organ donation. Adequate knowledge regarding organ donation was observed to be more among those who belonged to the age group of ≤30 years, male gender, educated up to higher secondary and above, Hindu religion, joint family type, and middle socioeconomic status. However, only family type and socioeconomic status were found to have statistically significant association. Similar findings were found regarding the attitude toward organ donation; participants belonging to the educational status up to higher secondary and above and joint family type were found to have significant positive attitude toward organ donation.

Studies from different parts of the country have assessed knowledge and attitude toward organ donation using various domains.[7,8,9,10] However, we could not find any community-based study reporting adequacy of the knowledge regarding organ donation among general population. However, there were studies which reported adequacy of knowledge among health-care professionals such as doctors, nurses, undergraduate, and postgraduate medical students.[11,12,13,14,15,16,17]

In our study, we found that 89% have heard about the term organ donation. Similar results were found in studies done in Kanchipuram (86%), Ahmedabad (86%), and Maharashtra (78%).[5,18,19] Studies done in Kerala showed that almost all the participants have heard about organ donation. Higher awareness regarding the term organ donation among our study population can be attributed to the higher educational status of the participants.

Regarding the domain eligibility status for organ donation, we have found that almost half of the study participants were aware that both living donor and deceased can donate organs. Similar results were reported in studies done in Ahmedabad, where more than half were aware about eligibility status regarding organ donation.[18] However, contrast findings were found in studies done in West Bengal were only 15.6% had knowledge about eligibility criteria.[10] These contrast findings can be attributed to the socioeconomic and cultural differences between the study populations.

The current study found that more than half of the study participants had positive attitude toward organ donation. In contrast, studies done in Kerala (26%) and West Bengal (42%) reported lesser proportion had positive attitude toward organ donation.[7,10] This difference in attitude can be attributed to the religious beliefs among Muslim population which has been reported in the previous studies.[20,21] Since most of our study population belonged to Hindu religion, attitude toward organ donation was better.

Practice of registration for organ donation was found to be poor among the study population. The findings were even worse in studies done in Kanchipuram and Ahmedabad where none of the participants were registered for organ donation.[5,18] Lack of knowledge regarding the necessity of registration for organ donation was the main contributor for poor registration status.

Limitations of the study were cross-sectional nature of the study which makes precludes the association between awareness regarding organ donation and sociodemographic factors. Reasons for lower practice of registration for organ donation could have been explored more.

In spite of these limitations, the current study has certain strengths also. Reporting the adequacy of knowledge and nature of attitude toward organ donation was one of the important strengths of the study. This being a community-based study makes the generalizability to general population. Good response rate was also an added strength to the study.

Organ donation is emerging as a topic of public health importance as a result of ever-increasing gap between the need and actual status of donation. This inequity is prevailing not only in India but also among the developed countries. Major reason for the existing inequity can be attributed to lack of awareness regarding organ donation among the general population. In the current study, we have found that even among those who were aware about the organ donation, practice of registration was poor. This might be because the health professionals acted as a source of information for less the 10% of the study population. Involvement of health professionals plays a vital role in developing the trust and motivating the community to register for organ donation.

There might be certain misconceptions and sociocultural beliefs regarding organ donation which needs to be addressed through “awareness campaigns.” Involvement of primary health-care workers in such campaigns is important as Primary Health Centre is the first point of care and closer to the community. As the procedure for registration of organ donation is cumbersome, simplification of the process and availability of registration facility at lowest possible level of health care need to be done. Further study to explore the reasons or hindering factors in registration of organ donation is required.

Go to:
Conclusion
Less than one-third of the study population had adequate knowledge regarding organ donation. Individuals belonging to middle socioeconomic status and joint family type had higher chance to have adequate knowledge. Even though more than half of them had positive attitude toward organ donation, only six individuals registered for organ donation. Awareness campaigns with registration facility can be conducted in community and primary health-care facility on regular basis to promote organ donation.

Financial support and sponsorship
Nil.

Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.

Go to:
Acknowledgment
I would like to acknowledge the staff of JIUHC and the Interns of 2012 batch for their contribution and support in conducting this study.

Go to:
References
donate organs
donate organs for money
donate organs after death
donate organs to science
donate organs for therapy
donate organs california
donate organs texas
donate organs in islam
donate organs quotes
donate organ after death
donate organ india
donate organ quotes
donate organ slogan
donate organ poster
donate organ australia
donate organ register
donate organ after death malaysia
donate organ ad
donate organ age
donate organ app
donate an organ
donate an organ for money
donate antique organ
organ donation application
donate a organ
donate an organ while alive
donate an organ after death
donate a musical organ
donate a hammond organ
can a smoker donate organs
can a diabetic donate organs
can a muslim donate organs
can you donate a donated organ
can a christian donate organs
donate organs bc
donate organs bangalore
donate body organ
donor organ baby
organ donor bc
organ donor bracelet
organ donor bracelet south africa
organ donor benefits
organ donor blood type
can hepatitis b donate organ
organ donor centre
organ donate chennai
donor organ consent
donor organ criteria
organ donor canada
organ donor card ireland
organ donor commercial
organ donor cancer
organ donor california
can hep c donate organs
donor organ definition
donor organ drivers license
donate life organ donation
organ donor dj shadow
organ donor day
organ donor dmv
organ donor database
organ donor driver's license ireland
donate organs if you have cancer
donate organ eyes
donate organs essay
donate electric organ
donate electronic organ
donor organ ethical issues
organ donor eligibility
organ donor eyes
organ donor exclusion criteria
organ donor essay
organ donor extended overhaul
organ donor guidelines
organ donor germany
organ donor gifts
organ donor good or bad
organ donor game
organ donor girl
organ donor gif
organ donor georgia
organ donor ga license
donate hammond organ
donor organ harvesting
donor organ haram
donor organ halal atau haram
organ donor horror stories
organ donor honor walk
organ donor hashtags
organ donor how long after death
organ donor hiv positive
organ donor humboldt
donate organ in malaysia
donate organ in singapore
donate organ in delhi
donate organ in kerala
donate organ in chennai
organ donation images
can i donate organs
should i donate organs
can i donate organs after cancer
can i donate organs while alive
i will donate organs to rbg
can i donate organs with hiv
how do i donate organs
i want to donate organs
i refuse to donate organs
donor organ jonghyun
donor organ jakarta
donor organ jogja
organ donor jobs
organ donor jokes
organ donor jeremy messersmith
organ donor jewelry
organ donor jesus
organ donor jeremy messersmith lyrics
organ donor judaism
donate organ kerala
donate organ kidneys
organ donor keychain
organ donor killed
organ donor kidney
organ donor kill you
organ donor keyring
organ donor kerala
organ donor kidnapping
organ donor kentucky
donate organ list
donate life organ
donate lowrey organ
donate life organ transplant
donor organ list
donor organ liver
donate organ save life
donate organs save lives
donate organ music
donate organ means
donate my organ
donate musical organ near me
organ donation movie
donor organ menurut agama islam
donor organ memory
donor organ meaning
donor organ match
donate organ name
organ donate nhs
organ donor news
organ donate nagpur
organ donation news bhopal
donor organ names
donor organ nurses
organ donor nsw
n organ donor
donate organ.org
donate organs ontario
donate organs or not
donor organ opt out
organ donor on license
organ donor on driving licence
organ donor organizations
organ donor or not
organ donor ohio
organ donor opt in
organ donation
can o- donate organs to anyone
organ donor
who can o+ donate organs to
can o negative donate organs to anyone
donate organ ppt
donate pump organ
organ donation procedure
donor organ pdf
donor organ preservation
donor organ prices
donor organ perfusion
organ donor pros and cons
donor organ quality
organ donor quotes
organ donor qld
organ donor qualifications
organ donor questions
organ donor queensland
organ donor quebec
organ donor questionnaire
organ donor quilt
donate organ registry
organ donation rangoli
organ donor registration
organ donor reddit
donor organ register
donor organ rejection
donor organ recovery services
donor organ registry
donor organ recovery
donor organ shortage
donor organ stories
donor organ system
organ donor south africa
organ donor statistics
organ donor sign up
organ donor scotland
organ donor symbol
donate organ to family member
donate organ to science
donate organ transplant
donate organ to
donate organ trade
donate to organ donors
donate their organ
donate an organ to a stranger
organ donor uk opt out
organ donor uk register
organ donor usa
organ donor uae
organ donor uz remix
organ donor update details
organ donor urban dictionary
organ donor unregister
organ donor us
can u donate organs in islam
can u donate organs with a tattoo
can u donate organs after death
what can u donate organs
can u donate your organs in islam
what happens when u donate organs
donate organs victoria
organ donation video
donor organ viability
donor organ vital
donate vital organs
organ donor victoria
organ donor virginia
organ donor volunteer
organ donor video with dog and old man
organ donor visa usa
donate wurlitzer organ
organ donor wiki
organ donor walk of respect
organ donor wa
organ donor website
organ donor week
organ donor wakes up
organ donor wales
organ donor week 2018
why should we donate organs
can we donate organs in islam
how can we donate organs
why should we donate organs after death
why we donate organs
can we donate organs after death
can we donate organs after tattoo
why shouldn't we donate organs
organs we can donate while alive
organ donor xkcd
donate your organ
donate yamaha organ
organ donor yes or no
organ donor youtube
organ donor yukon
organ donor youtube dj shadow
organ donor yahoo answers
care to donate your organ
you donate organ
organ donor zomboy
organ donor z9
organ donor za
organ donor zomboy lyrics
3 reasons to donate organs
sims 3 donate an organ
organ donor 9z
organ donor 90 minutes